mardi 4 mars 2014
Pourquoi envisager une philosophie africaine alors que la philosophie tout court a prétention à l’universalité ? A quoi pourrait-être utile cette philosophie africaine ? Souleymane Bachir Diagne, enseignant à l’université Columbia de New-York, entreprend de vulgariser ses connaissances dans une nouvelle collection de livres chez Présence africaine.
Au milieu des années 1970, sont apparus les nouveaux philosophes. Les années 2015 seront-elles celles des philosophies africaines ? Question légitime au vu de la production éditoriale récente. Nées dans les universités africaines, françaises et américaines ces nouvelles philosophies sont nomades. Elles puisent dans la réalité africaine de quoi exercer leur réflexion critique. Elles donnent de quoi penser les conflits ethniques, comme nous le rappelle le 20eanniversaire du génocide des Tutsis au Rwanda, ou l’esthétique des arts dits premiers célébrés dans les musées occidentaux ou encore les prétendues cultures orales « soumises » à la tradition : les sujets que prennent en compte les philosophies africaines ne manquent pas. Les derniers nouveaux philosophes Face à la philosophie historiquement représentée par la pensée grecque, deux ouvrages récents dans une nouvelle collection éditée par Présence africaine, permettent à tout un chacun de faire de la philosophie comparée. D’abord« Philosophies africaines » de Séverine Kodjo-Grandvaux et « L’encre des savants » de Souleymane Bachir Diagne, philosophe sénégalais, qui est responsable de la publication. Et ce dernier n’entend pas rester à la parole de Senghor : « L’émotion est nègre, comme la raison est hellène ». Le titre de l’essai de Souleymane Bachir Diagne se veut « précis » de vulgarisation philosophique. Il insiste sur le rôle historique de l’Afrique et de l’écrit. Il déconstruit le vieil adage : « En Afrique, quand un vieillard meurt c’est une bibliothèque qui brûle. » Non, dit-il, l’Afrique n’est pas qu’oralité. Elle s’écrit depuis toujours, au moins depuis Saint-Augustin, comme en témoignent les nombreux manuscrits des bibliothèques de Tombouctou. Preuve de l’engouement pour ces « nouveaux nouveaux philosophes », son essai Comment philosopher en Islam en en est à sa troisième édition chez Philippe Rey.
Nous avons rencontré Souleymane Bachir Diagne à Paris lors d’un cycle de séminaires à l’Ecole normale supérieure, consacré à la traduction.
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